Hi, cosmic mystery buffs. It has just been reported, in the January issue of Astronomy, that Douglas Finkbeiner and his students, Meng Su and Tracy Slatyer, all of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, discovered a puzzling characteristic about two recently discovered (2010) gamma ray bubbles, each: 25,000 light years across; perpendicular to the Milky Way’s disc; and the energy of 100,00 supernovae.

Their discovery is that the bubbles have fairly sharp edges, and their “best guess”, as to the source of these structures, is matter accretion onto the galactic black hole, while others venture that it could be a massive burst of recent, but long term, star formation at the galaxy center. For one thing, the manifestation of black hole accretion is jets, not bubbles, and for another, bubbles of that size are the not-so-sharply-edged sign of an individual supernova, which would not have been sufficiently energized to match the data, and a sufficiently energized series of supernovae would have had to have been contemporaneous, or too numerous and long-lived, to match the data. It is thought that bursts of star formation are formed by black hole activated pressure waves that collapse randomly distanced gas clouds, so that, at this distance, we should be able to detect them as an evenly distributed torus, circling the galactic center, and to measure the ongoing expansion of the bubbles. Besides, where are all those young, bright, leftover stars?

The tip-off is the sharpness of the bubble edges, which has been interpreted as a recent past event. Why not an ongoing event, and why not the hemispheres of one bubble, instead of two separate bubbles? Not only do I propose that the bubble structure is singular, but also that it is static, is an artifact of every galactic bulge, and that a flatter/thinner version surrounds every galactic disc.

At last, here is proof that early suggestions, quickly discarded, were correct– i.e., vacuum energy is Fritz Zwicky’s missing mass. Yes, Casimir plate measurements prove that vacuum energy “weighs” much too little, at the surface of the earth… but not in our galactic halo, part of which, I believe, is what has really been discovered. I predict that further measurements will reveal an equally sharp gamma ray envelope, which closely follows the outline of the galactic disc, and which varies in depth as a function of stellar mass- i.e., the more massive the arc section of disc, the greater the depth.

If you want to know how vacuum energy density can vary, with distance, and its affect on galactic halos, the Pioneer anomaly, and the accelerating universe, among other things, please contact me, at

Author: Arnold Lasky

I wrote the book, called “The Case of the Missing Siblings”, which is about cosmology and particle physics, and explores the nature of dark matter/energy, and the reasons why there are three families of matter.

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